D2.1 Matrix of risks and remediation measures - Risks and remediation measures at different stages of MAR site development. Deliverable 2.1

The types and objectives to apply managed aquifer recharge (MAR) are manifold and so are the risks that can arise during the planning, implementation and operation of a MAR facility. In general, operational, regulatory, business, human health, and environmental risks can occur and should be identified already during the planning and implementation stage to apply preventive measures and secure the safe and realibale operation of a MAR facility. This report represents risk assessment based on recommendations of international guidelines (AlcaldeSanz and Gawlik, 2017; NRMMC-EPHC-NHMRC, 2008; WHO, 2009, 2011) at six MAR sites which are at different stages of development. Three case studies are at the feasibility or pilot stage: two ASR systems in João Pessoa and Recife, Brazil and one induced bank filtration site at the Beberibe River in Brazil, and three case studies at the operational stage: one SAT system in the Ezousa catchment in Cyprus, and two infiltration basin systems in Hyères, France (Aquarenova site) and Berlin-Spandau, Germany. The entrylevel assessment according to the Australian guidelines (NRMMC-EPHC-NHMRC, 2009) has been conducted for the feasibility or pilot scale schemes For fully operational MAR schemes, in addition to the entry-level assessment, the degree of difficulty assessment and the maximal risk assessment were carried out. At all stages of site development, risk assessment helps to identify and characterize potential hazards that may cause risks to human health and the environment. This report may be used to assist in clarifying which actions or further investigations are required to identify and reduce the uncertainty of risks and to implement remediation measures if necessary. In addition, this report intends to show how sitespecific hazards have been assessed to varying degrees depending upon the level of risk assessed at each project development stage.

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