Kabbe, C. , Kraus, F. (2022): Phosphor – Von der Rückgewinnung zum Recycling (Praxishandbuch der Kreislauf- und Rohstoffwirtschaft 2., überarbeitete und aktualisierte Auflage).

In: Praxishandbuch der Kreislauf- und Rohstoffwirtschaft 2., überarbeitete und aktualisierte Auflage, edited by Peter Kurth, Anno Oexle and Martin Faulstich


Die traditionell vielschichtige Abfallwirtschaft entwickelt sich mit der ihr eigenen Dynamik zur Kreislauf- und Rohstoffwirtschaft. Im vorliegenden Handbuch werden erstmalig alle wesentlichen Aspekte dieses Wirtschaftssektors – fachübergreifend und interdisziplinär – behandelt. Neben den in der Ressourcenwirtschaft relevanten rechtlichen Fragestellungen (u. a. Stoffrecht, Verwaltungsrecht, Haftung und Transport) sind die unterschiedlichen Stoffströme dargestellt (z. B. Glas, Papier, Verpackung, Metalle und Elektronik-Altgeräte, Bioabfälle) sowie Anlagentechnik und Logistik beschrieben (Abfallwirtschaftssysteme, Abfallbehandlung, Deponierung). Bei der Auswahl der Themen und Autoren lag der Schwerpunkt auf Praxisrelevanz und Praxisbezug.

ISBN: 978-3-658-36261-4

Makropoulos, C. , Casas Garriga, S. , Kleyböcker, A. , Sockeel, C. , Plata Rios, C. , Smith, H. , Frijns, J. (2022): A water-sensitive circular economy and the nexus concept.

In: Handbook on the Water-Energy-Food Nexus, edited by S. R. S. Floor Brouwer. Wageningen Research. the Netherlands. Elgar online 2022


This Handbook provides a comprehensive overview of how water, energy and food are interconnected, comprising a coherent system: the nexus. It considers the interlinkages between natural resources, governance processes seeking coherence among water, energy and food policies, and the adoption of transdisciplinary approaches in the field.

With contributions covering a broad range of disciplinary perspectives and cross-cutting themes, the Handbook has a well-balanced mix of conceptual chapters and empirical studies. It includes a state-of-the-art analysis of the concepts and experiences in implementing the nexus in different policy environments, providing examples of successful integrated decision-making across the domains of water, energy and food. Offering a global perspective on water, energy and food security, the Handbook contains insights into achieving both national development goals and the Sustainable Development Goals. Chapters further highlight how to understand the concepts of the nexus in practice, impacts of the nexus in governance, policy and business, and methods and tools to strengthen the nexus.

Interdisciplinary and thorough, this Handbook will be critical reading for environmental management, public policy and human geography scholars. It will also be a useful tool for policymakers looking for successful examples of policy coherence towards an integrated management of water, energy and food resources

habibi , Loderer, C. , Remy, C. (2021): Chapter 2.4: Environmental context, Chapter 3.4: Case study Germany.

p 114 In: Farina R. [ed.], REEF 2W: Increased renewable energy and energy efficiency by integrating, combining and empowering urban wastewater and organic waste management systems. ENEA. Bologna, Italy

Kraus, F. , Conzelmann, L. (2020): Marktpotential und Logistik beim P-Recycling.

p 438 In: Holm O., Thomé-Kozmiensky E., Quicker P. & Kopp-Assenmacher S. [eds.], Verwertung von Klärschlamm 3. Thomé-Kozmiensky Verlag GmbH. Berlin


The sewage sludge ordinance forces wastewater treatment plants to ensure the recovery of phosphate from the produced sewage sludge. In most cases, this obligation is transferred to the company in charge of the sludge disposal. For the recovery process, technology-specific but not product-specific specifications are made. The present article gives an overview of the products of different processes and their possible marketing in two routes: direct marketing and integration into the fertilizer industry. Possibilities, limits, requirements and potential product revenues for selected products are discussed against the background of current world market prices. Finally, the chemical expenditure of certain processes and logistical considerations are addressed. The considerations suggest that wet chemical ash processes should best be integrated in chemical parks.

Kraus, F. (2019): Was folgt aus den Vorgaben zur Phosphorrückgewinnung?.

p 348 In: Holm O., Thomé-Kozmiensky E., Quicker P. & Kopp-Assenmacher S. [eds.], Verwertung von Klärschlamm 2. Thomé-Kozmiensky Verlag GmbH. Berlin


With the new sewage sludge ordinance from 2017, phosphorus recovery becomes obligatory for large sewage treatment plant operators. Within the last year, the interpretation of this ordinance due to the exact wording has changed. As an example, a process aiming to recover phosphorus within the sewage treatment plant from waste water or sludge before the sludge is legally understood as waste. Therefore, a benchmark of 20 g Phosphorus (P)/kg dry matter (DM) is foreseen. However, this benchmark is an obstacle to increasing energy efficiency and sludge reduction, since carbon and dry matter is transferred into biogas in anaerobic digestion. Normally, raw sludge has a phosphorus content around 20 g P/kg DM, while digested sludge has a phosphorus content of about 35 g P/kg DM. The paper shows estimations of different full-scale combinations targeting phosphorus and advanced energy recovery and the resulting phosphorus content in sewage sludge per kg DM. Furthermore, this paper discusses the legal framework regarding phosphorus recovery from ash based on the sewage sludge ordinance, the national fertilizer regulation, the European Union fertilizing product regulation and the European Union feed/fodder regulation. The author concludes, that the legal framework is not explained properly to sewage treatment plant operators, which leads to confusions. Several questionable paragraphs and their wording should be addressed in future regulation amendments. Finally, there should be a regulatory need to establish phosphorus recovery from demand side (fertilizer industry, farmers) and not only from supplier side (sewage treatment plants). Because otherwise products must be produced, whereby no actual market for these products is established.

Kraus, F. , Zamzow, M. , Conzelmann, L. (2018): Ökobilanzieller Vergleich der konventionellen P-Düngemittelproduktion aus Rohphosphat mit der Phosphorrückgewinnung aus dem Abwasserpfad.

p 535 In: Holm O., Thomé-Kozmiensky E., Quicker P. & Kopp-Assenmacher S. [eds.], Verwertung von Klärschlamm. Thomé-Kozmiensky Verlag GmbH. Berlin

Remy, C. , Kraus, F. (2017): Life Cycle Assessment of processes for P recycling.

In: Ohtake H. & Tsuneda S. [eds.], Phosphorus Recovery and Recycling. Springer. Tokyo, Japan

Remy, C. , Corominas, L. , Hospido, A. , Larsen, H. F. , Teodosiu, C. (2017): Assessing environmental impacts and benefits of wastewater treatment plants.

p 600 In: Lema J. M. & Suarez Martinez S. [eds.], Innovative Wastewater Treatment & Resource Recovery Technologies: Impacts on Energy, Economy and Environment. IWA Publishing. London, UK

Kabbe, C. , Kraus, F. (2017): Phosphor – der Flaschenhals des Lebens.

In: Kurth P., Oexle A. & Faulstich M. [eds.], Praxishandbuch der Kreislauf- und Rohstoffwirtschaft. Springer Verlag. Wiesbaden

Kabbe, C. (2017): Circular Economy – Bridging the gap between Phosphorus Recovery and Recycling.

In: Ohtake H. & Tsuneda S. [eds.], Phosphorus Recovery and Recycling. Springer Verlag. Tokyo, Japan

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