Meinel, F. (2011): Ökobilanz und wirtschaftlicher Vergleich verschiedener Phosphoreliminationsverfahren in Kläranlagen.

Diploma Thesis. Siedlungswasserwirtschaft. Technische Universität Dresden


Zum Klärwerk Berlin-Münchehofe, in dem Phosphor mittels chemischer Fällung entfernt wird und zum Klärwerk Berlin-Waßmannsdorf, in dem eine Bio-P-Elimination eingesetzt wird, wurden eine vergleichende Ökobilanz und ein Wirtschaftlichkeitsvergleich durchgeführt. In die Untersuchung einbezogen wurde die Phosphorrückgewinnung mit dem MAP-Verfahren, die im Klärwerk Waßmannsdorf zur Anwendung kommt. Ziel der Arbeit ist es, anhand der Referenzsysteme das aus ökologischer und ökonomischer Sicht vorzuziehende Verfahren der Phosphorentfernung zu bestimmen. Es wurde eine statische Modellierung der einzelnen Prozesse der betrachteten Klärwerke anhand einer großen Datengrundlage durchgeführt. In der Wirkungsabschätzung wurden für verschiedene Wirkungskategorien wie Treibhauspotential oder Eutrophierungspotential die negativen Auswirkungen der Klärwerke auf die Umwelt ermittelt. Außerdem wurden Investitions- und Betriebskosten der Klärwerke ermittelt und gegenübergestellt. Es zeigt sich, dass das Bio-P-Verfahren in Kombination mit der MAP-Rückgewinnung geringere negative Umweltwirkungen verursacht als das Verfahren der chemischen P-Fällung mit der Herstellung konventionellen Mineraldüngers. Es ist für die Umwelt das verträglichere Verfahren. Die Investitionskosten des KW Waßmannsdorf sind höher als die des KW Münchehofe. Die Betriebskosten sind vergleichbar.

Seis, W. (2011): Risk assessment of the wastewater-reuse strategy of Braunschweig concerning impacts on the environment and human health.

Diploma Thesis. Fakultät III Prozesswissenschaften - Institut für Technischen Umweltschutz - Fachgebiet Sustainable Engineering. Technische Universität Berlin


Risk-based management approaches are more and more used in the water sector and are promoted by the WHO. As a first step towards an overall risk-based management approach of the agricultural wastewater reuse concept of Braunschweig this thesis conducts quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) and quantitative chemical risk assessment (QCRA) of heavy metals. Scenarios for microbial risks are conducted for fieldworkers, nearby residents and children ingesting soil using a 1000 trial Monte Carlo Simulation. As a tolerable value of risk an additional disease burden of 1 µDALY is set following the current WHO guidelines. For heavy metals impacts on the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems as well as on human health are assessed using the methods outlined in the European Union Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment (TGD). Concerning microbial risks risk-based targets are set in terms of additional required pathogen reduction in the STP Steinhof. Based on the model results an additional reduction of 1.5log units is derived for viruses, for which the highest annual risks of infection per person per year (pppy) is calculated in all scenarios. Concerning heavy metals the model indicates an increasing tendency of soil concentrations over time and identifies Cd as the only metal which is currently of concern. Risk reduction measures should be considered for this metal. Recommendations are given concerning necessary validation and additional monitoring for eliminating uncertainties within the model.

Schulz, M. , Godehardt, M. , Boulestreau, M. , Ernst, M. , Miehe, U. , Lesjean, B. , Jekel, M. (2011): Analysis of nanoparticles in treated domestic wastewater for improved understanding and prevention of membrane fouling.

p 8 In: IWW Conference Water & Innovation - Water Technology. Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 2011-11-04


Pre-treatments minimizing membrane fouling are extensively studied, to extend membrane life span and decrease the operating costs. In this study, the effect of several pre-treatment options before tertiary membrane treatment was investigated with a submicron particle counter from Nanosight (UK). This device using the Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis method is able to measure the particle size distribution and the absolute particle concentration of particles between 50 and 1000 nm in secondary effluent. The goal of this study is to enhance the understanding of MF/UF membrane fouling by monitoring the submicron particle fraction in the water. Experiments were carried out at lab-scale. Reliability and reproducibility of the device were determined as well as the impact of the pre-filtration on the measurements. The impact of ozonation (0-15 mg O3/L) and/or coagulation (0-12 mg Fe3+/L) on particle size distribution and on the filtration performance was studied on a polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membrane. Results showed a clear relationship between the amount of nanoparticles below 200 nm and the filtration behavior. Lower particle concentrations in this size range resulted in lower flux decline due to reversible fouling. Coagulation and ozonation pre-treatment decreased the particle concentration below 200 nm. The combination of ozonation/coagulation shows synergistic effects and leads to an additional decrease of submicron particle content and further improvement of the filtration performance. Long term impact on hydraulic irreversible fouling still needs to be clarified.


Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) provides efficient removal for many organic compounds and sum parameters. However, observed in situ removal efficiencies tend to scatter and cannot be predicted easily. In this paper, a method is introduced which allows to identify and eliminate biased samples and to quantify simultaneously the impact of (i) redox conditions (ii) kinetics (iii) residual threshold values below which no removal occurs and (iv) field site specifics. It enables to rule out spurious correlations between these factors and therefore improves the predictive power. The method is applied to an extensive database from three MAR field sites which was compiled in the NASRI project (2002e2005, Berlin, Germany). Removal characteristics for 38 organic parameters are obtained, of which 9 are analysed independently in 2 different laboratories. Out of these parameters, mainly pharmaceutically active compounds (PhAC) but also sum parameters and industrial chemicals, four compounds are shown to be readily removable whereas six are persistent. All partly removable compounds show a redox dependency and most of them reveal either kinetic dependencies or residual threshold values, which are determined. Differing removal efficiencies at different field sites can usually be explained by characteristics (i) to (iii).


The capacity of drinking water abstraction wells, which is the yield for a given drawdown of the water level, is often decreasing after a certain time of operation. This well ageing can be caused in carbonate aquifers by a chemical process : calcite precipitation. Using an hydrogeochemical model developped during the internship, the quantity of precipitated calcite and the time required to fill up the bore are estimated. It is then showed that carbonate precipitation is enhanced by chemical and physical parameters (hydrogenocarbonate concentrations, temperature) as well as the operating of the well (pumping and resting).

Langer, M. (2011): Optimization of flocculation for advanced phosphorus removal via microsieve filtration.

Diploma Thesis. Fakultät III Prozesswissenschaften, Institut für Technischen Umweltschutz, FG Wasserreinhaltung. Technische Universität Berlin


In the future, advanced phosphorus removal will be necessary in many WWTP in order to meet the demands of the European water framework directive. The project OXERAM deals with the comparison of different technologies with regard to their efficiency and applicability in tertiary treatment. In the course of the project membrane and microsieve filtration are tested in pilot scale at the Ruhleben STP. In this thesis the optimization of coagulation and flocculation prior to microsieve filtration for advanced phosphorus removal (< 80 µg/L TP; total phosphorus) was investigated. For the optimization of the coagulation/ flocculation several test series were conducted with the aid of jar test and the mircosieve pilot plant. A direct comparison of jar tests and the pilot plant showed that jar tests are an appropriate method to predict the approximate outcome of optimization steps (e.g. variation of chemical doses) in the pilot plant. The pilot trials were able to demonstrate that the microsieve technology (10 µm pore size) in combination with chemical pre-treatment of 0.036 - 0.179 mmol/L coagulant (Fe or Al) and 2 mg/L cationic polymer could easily achieve good and reliable TP removal. The phosphorus removal was comparable to dual media filtration (< 80 µg/L TP) and partly even to membrane filtration (< 50 µg/L TP). The reduction of the residual coagulant contents in the filtrate was identified as the main challenge of this technology. High iron contents of about 1 mg/L were accompanied by floc formation behind the mircosieve in filtrate tank and pipe. In a microsieve the formed flocs have to endure high shear forces. Thus, the so-called post-flocculation was most probably caused by re-flocculation of floc fragments. Very low phosphorus values < 50 µg/L were possible at high metal dosing. But the higher suspended solid load reduced the filtration capacity of the microsieve. Coagulation with polyalumium chloride (PACl) produced better effluent quality compared to FeCl3 as less suspended solids and less residual coagulant were found in the microsieve effluent. Furthermore, the transmission of UV radiation through the water was improved from 47 up to 66 % by using PACl which is favorable if a downstream UV disinfection is considered. When using FeCl3 the transmission was not improved or even reduced. Due to the influence on the performance of the microsieve cationic polymers were preferred to anionic polymers. However, the tested anionic polymer proved to be not applicable in the given process configuration due to very low filtrate flows. When cationic polymer was applied the polymer dose had a high impact on the particle removal and moreover on the contents of phosphorus and coagulant residuals in the effluent. In most cases 2 mg/L polymer was necessary. In total, the microsieve technology in combination with chemical pre-treatment is a suitable option for advanced phosphorus removal. Through a dynamic adjustment of the chemical dosing to the influent water quality (e.g. ortho phosphate and turbidity online measurement) and the choice of polymer the process could be optimized in the future with regard to efficient chemical application.

Remy, C. (2011): Energetischer Vergleich der erweiterten Oxidationsverfahren.

p 7 In: TTP Seminar Oxidationsverfahren für die Behandlung von Trink- und Abwasser. ZU Berlin. 2011-02-24

Boulestreau, M. , Schulz, M. (2011): Submicron particle analysis to characterize fouling in tertiary membrane filtration.

In: 6th IWA Specialist Conference on Membrane Technology for Water and Wastewater Treatment. Aachen. 04.-07.10. 2011

Boulestreau, M. , Sakti Raspati, G. (2011): Online analysis of the nanoparticles to prevent membrane fouling by a secondary effluent.

In: International Congress on Membranes and Membrane Processes. Amsterdam. 23.07.- 29.07. 2011

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