An innovative tool for modeling the specific flood volume was presented that can be applied to assess the need for stormwater network modernization as well as for advanced flood risk assessment. Field measurements for a catchment area in Kielce, Poland, were used to apply the model and demonstrate its usefulness. This model extends the capability of recently developed statistical and machine learning hydrodynamic models developed from multiple runs of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). The extensions enable the inclusion of (1) the characteristics of the catchment and its stormwater network, calibrated model parameters expressing catchment retention, and the capacity of the sewer system; (2) extended sensitivity analysis; and (3) risk analysis. Sensitivity coefficients of calibrated model parameters include correction coefficients for percentage area, flow path, depth of storage, and impervious area; Manning roughness coefficients for impervious areas; and Manning roughness coefficients for sewer channels. Sensitivity coefficients were determined with respect to rainfall intensity and characteristics of the catchment and stormwater network. Extended sensitivity analysis enabled an evaluation of the variability in the specific flood volume and sensitivity coefficients within a catchment, in order to identify the most vulnerable areas threatened by flooding. Thus, the model can be used to identify areas particularly susceptible to stormwater network failure and the sections of the network where corrective action should be taken to reduce the probability of system failure. The simulator developed to determine the specific flood volume represents an alternative approach to the SWMM that, unlike current approaches, can be calibrated with limited topological data availability; therefore, the aforementioned simulator incurs a lower cost due to the lower number and lower specificity of data required.


The objective of the report is to identify enabling and hindering factors for the uptake of ICT solutions to water governance, through the analysis of the process of development and the introduction of three digital applications in three different contexts of water management.
This final deliverable builds on a preliminary (deliverable 3.4) for WP3 which was submitted in November 2020. The report applies the structure proposed in the Guiding Protocol (Deliverable 3.1).


The present report summarizes the benefits of the eleven digital solutions demonstrated within DWC-WP2 in the form of fact sheets. The document aims to help cities and water utilities in finding appropriate solutions for their operational, environmental or public health deficits. The report is the final version which was submitted in Nov. 2022 after incorporating the recommendations and amendments by the EC.


This report delivers a practical manual to support operators with the management of sensors networks in existing water infrastructures. It includes (1) the presentation and assessment of a new easy-to-use sensor for faecal bacteria measurements, (2) methodologies for the validation of online sensors and analysers and (3) best practices for installation, operation, and maintenance.

In DWC, raw data collected from on-line sensors and lab analyses are integrated and analysed to gather conclusive information and early warning to support decisions to deliver safe water reuse and inform about bathing water quality. Three relevant case studies, namely Paris, Berlin and Milan, were investigated in this research. In the case studies of Paris and Berlin, sensors were installed to monitor microbiological contamination in bathing water sites. In the case study of Milan, a real-time sensor network was designed to promote safe water reuse reducing the risk of microbial contamination of soils and crops during irrigation, while assuring compliance of wastewater quality with reuse standard limits.

The technical characteristics of all the installed on-line sensors are reported in section 1, including the innovative ALERT devices manufactured by FLUIDION, which allow the on-line measurements of faecal bacteria indicators. The section also describes in detail measurement characteristics, i.e., static and dynamic characteristics of instrumentation, operational modes, initial measurement accuracy and standards.

The use of real-time data to support health protection and risk management requires primary their validation, in terms of reliability, in order to integrate the standard lab measures with a continuous monitoring system, for control optimization and risk minimization. To date, one of the main lacks on risk management approach is the absence of common procedure on how to treat non-standardized data, such as real-time online data. To answer this question, this report intends to provide practical information about validation, operation and maintenance of on-line sensors for the three representative case studies. Particularly, this report includes

  • Return of experience on installation, troubleshooting and maintenance (section 2).

  • Data analysis and assessment of the bias, precision and accuracy of the online sensors (section 3).

The conclusions are reported in section 4.


Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) are of major environmental concern for impacted surface waterbodies. In the last decades, major storm events have become increasingly regular in some areas, and meteorological scenarios predict a further rise in their frequency. Consequently, control and treatment of CSOs with respect to best practice examples, innovative treatment solutions, and management of sewer systems are an inevitable necessity. As a result, the number of publications concerning quality, quantity, and type of treatments has recently increased. This review therefore aims to provide a critical overview on the effects, control, and treatment of CSOs in terms of impact on the environment and public health, strict measures addressed by regulations, and the various treatment alternatives including natural and compact treatments. Drawing together the previous studies, an innovative treatment and control guideline are also proposed for the better management practices.


The Implementation Plan (D2.1) is a document, which outlines how and where different digital solutions for water infrastructures will be demonstrated and assessed in the scope of WP2 of the DWC project. It is the first of three deliverables and followed by demonstration and assessment of performance and return of investment by means of key performance indicators (KPI) also defined in this deliverable. ; Version (v0.1.0) submitted to EC.

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